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Voir Dire Voir dire is the process of selecting a jury in the U. Cross-Examination For cross-examination to be an effective safeguard, three conditions must be met. Jury Instructions Because of the ineffectiveness of other safeguards, many scholars recommend that courts use jury instructions or expert testimony to sensitize jurors to eyewitness testimony.

Eyewitness Expert Testimony Cutler et al. Solutions to Eyewitness Error Education Because the principal participants in criminal justice systems have limited knowledge of eyewitness factors, it is essential that legal systems educate them about eyewitnesses. Proper eyewitness interviews and identifications The most potent means available to the legal system to reduce eyewitness error is to conduct proper eyewitness interviews and identification procedures.

Improved legal safeguards Even if law enforcement adapted all the necessary reforms for proper interviews and identification procedures, eyewitness errors would still occur. Greater cooperation with legal professionals and more field studies of eyewitness reforms Psychologists should work closely with legal professionals in developing and testing eyewitness reforms. Conclusion Wrongful convictions are not only a tragedy for innocent defendants and their families but also for the victims of additional crimes that occur because the true perpetrator of a crime has not been apprehended.

Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Footnotes 1 In both the U. References 1. Evaluating eyewitness testimony in adults and children. Loftus EF, Greene E. Warning: even memory for faces may be contagious.

Law Hum Behav 4 4 — Loftus EF. Dispatch from the uncivil memory wars. Lancet — Brewer N, Burke A. Effects of testimonial inconsistencies and eyewitness confidence on mock-juror judgments. Law Hum Behav 26 3 — Shaw JS. J Exp Psychol Appl 2 2 — J Appl Psychol 83 3 — The Innocence Project. Eyewitness Misidentification. Gross SR, Shaffer M. Introduction: identification procedures and conviction of the innocent. In: Cutler BL, editor. Reform of Eyewitness Identification Procedures.

Perry v. New Hampshire. Brief for Amicus Curiae. Eyewitness memory is still not common sense: comparing jurors, judges and law enforcement to eyewitness experts.

Eyewitness Testimony - Psychology - Oxford Bibliographies

Appl Cogn Psychol 20 1 — Do jurors share a common understanding concerning eyewitness behavior? Law Hum Behav 6 1 — After 30 years, what do we know about what jurors know? A meta-analytic review of lay knowledge regarding eyewitness factors. Law Hum Behav 35 3 — Expert testimony on eyewitness evidence: in search of common sense. Behav Sci Law 31 5 — Beliefs about factors affecting the reliability of eyewitness testimony: a comparison of judges, jurors and the general public. Appl Cogn Psychol 24 1 — Knowledge of eyewitness memory.

Aust Psychol 24 3 — Noon E, Hollin CR. Lay knowledge of eyewitness behaviour: a British survey. Appl Cogn Psychol 1 2 — Beyond the Ken? Belief of eyewitness identification evidence. A lay perspective on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. J Appl Soc Psychol 29 1 — Appl Cogn Psychol 27 2 — Wells GL. Applied eyewitness-testimony research: system variables and estimator variables. J Pers Soc Psychol 36 12 — Juror sensitivity to eyewitness identification evidence. Law Hum Behav 14 2 — Mock-juror belief of accurate and inaccurate eyewitnesses: a replication and extension.

Law Hum Behav 13 3 — The external validity of eyewitness identification research: generalizing across subject populations.


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Law Hum Behav 13 4 — Accuracy, confidence, and juror perceptions in eyewitness identification. J Appl Psychol 64 4 — What US judges know and believe about eyewitness testimony. Appl Cogn Psychol 18 4 — Am Psychol 56 5 — What judges know about eyewitness testimony: a comparison of Norwegian and US judges. Psychol Crime Law 14 3 — Eyewitness testimony: tracing the beliefs of Swedish legal professionals. Behav Sci Law 23 5 — Psychol Crime Law 16 8 — How effective is the motion-to-suppress safeguard? J Appl Psychol 82 2 — Perspectives on the role of the eyewitness expert.

Behav Sci Law 8 4 — Empirical evidence versus common sense: juror and lawyer knowledge of eyewitness accuracy. Law Psychol Rev 7 :1—15 [ Google Scholar ]. How effective is the presence-of-counsel safeguard?

Attorney perceptions of suggestiveness, fairness, and correctability of biased lineup procedures. J Appl Psychol 81 1 — Is the psychology of eyewitness identification a matter of common sense? Evaluating Witness Evidence. Chichester: Wiley; What US prosecutors and defence attorneys know and believe about eyewitness testimony.

Appl Cogn Psychol 23 9 — What Italian defense attorneys know about factors affecting eyewitness accuracy: a comparison with U. Front Psychiatry 4 What U. Appl Cogn Psychol 25 3 — Kask K. Comparison of knowledge of law enforcement and lay people regarding eyewitness testimony. Jur Int 18 —72 [ Google Scholar ]. Police Executive Research Forum. Magnussen S, Melinder A.

Tidsskr Norsk Psykologforen 49 4 —47 [ Google Scholar ]. What psychologists know and believe about memory: a survey of practitioners. Appl Cogn Psychol 26 1 — Melinder A, Magnussen S. Psychologists and psychiatrists serving as expert witnesses in court: what do they know about eyewitness memory? Psychol Crime Law Beliefs about memory among psychology students and their professors in psychodynamic clinical and experimental study programs.

Eur Rev Appl Psychol 63 5 — A scientist-practitioner gap in beliefs about repressed memory. Psychol Sci 25 2 — Saying versus judging: assessing knowledge of eyewitness memory. Appl Cogn Psychol 24 9 — Effectiveness of traditional safeguards against erroneous conviction arising from mistaken eyewitness identification. Expert Testimony on the Psychology of Eyewitness Identification. United States v. Ash U. Effectiveness of voir dire as a safeguard in eyewitness cases. J Appl Psychol 79 5 — Telfaire F.

Reconstructive Memory

Jury instructions on witness identification. Gabe Caldwell 10 episodes, Warren Christie Ryan Kane 10 episodes, Tattiawna Jones Kamilah Davis 10 episodes, Matt Murray Tony Michaels 10 episodes, Aidan Devine Bo Waldenbeck 9 episodes, Rainbow Francks Burlingame 9 episodes, Mercedes Morris Rose 7 episodes, Amanda Brugel Sita Petronelli 6 episodes, Alex Karzis Edit Storyline After two closeted guys accidentally witness a triple murder, they will do anything to avoid being outed to their small town, or worse - being found by the killer.

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    Edit page. Add episode. Clear your history. IMDb Everywhere. Follow IMDb on. DPReview Digital Photography. Audible Download Audio Books. Helen Torrance 10 episodes, Philip Shea 10 episodes, Lukas Waldenbeck 10 episodes, Gabe Caldwell 10 episodes, Ryan Kane 10 episodes, Kamilah Davis 10 episodes, Tony Michaels 10 episodes, Bo Waldenbeck 9 episodes, Burlingame 9 episodes, Rose 7 episodes, Sita Petronelli 6 episodes, Loftus et al.

    In one version the customer was holding a gun, in the other the same customer held a checkbook.

    Eyewitness Testimony

    Participants who saw the gun version tended to focus on the gun. As a result they were less likely to identify the customer in an identity parade those who had seen the checkbook version. However, a study by Yuille and Cutshall contradicts the importance of weapon focus in influencing eyewitness memory.

    Allport, G. The psychology of rumor. Bartlett, F. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Clifford, B. Individual and situational factors in eyewitness memory. Journal of Applied Psychology , 63, Deffenbacher, K. The influence of arousal on reliability of testimony. Clifford Eds. Evaluating witness evidence. Chichester: Wiley. Loftus, E. Some facts about weapon focus. Law and Human Behavior , 11, Yerkes R. The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology , —